Characterisation offusarium graminearum andF. culmorum isolates by mycotoxin production and aggressiveness to wheat

A total of 27Fusarium culmorum isolates from Germany and 41F. graminearum isolates from Kenya were investigated for aggressiveness and mycotoxin production on wheat ears. In addition, ergosterol content of the kernels from ears inoculated withF. graminearum was determined and theF. culmorum isolates were tested for mycotoxin productionin vitro. For both pathogens, isolates markedly differed in aggressiveness. 59% and 37% of theF. culmorum isolates produced NIV and DON, respectively,in vivo andin vitro. The DON-producing isolates also produced 3-acDONin vitro.

Occurrence of mycotoxin producing Fusarium species and other fungi on wheat kernels harvest in selected districts of Kenya

Wheat samples collected from 5 wheat growing districts of Kenya were investigated for contamination by different fungi. Kernels were plated on agar media and the fungi that grew were identified by cultural and morphological characteristics to genus level. Fusarium isolates were identified to species level and isolates of F. graminearum were tested for mycotoxin production in culture. The major genera of fungi isolated according to decreasing frequency were Epicoccum (52.8%), Alternaria (34%), Fusarium (6%), Aspergillus (2.3%) and Penicillium (1.8%).

Mycotoxin problem in Africa: Current status, implications to food safety and health and possible management strategies

Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of fungal origin and contaminate agricultural commodities before or under post-harvest conditions. They are mainly produced by fungi in the Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium genera. When ingested, inhaled or absorbed through the skin, mycotoxins will cause lowered performance, sickness or death on humans and animals. Factors that contribute to mycotoxin contamination of food and feed in Africa include environmental, socio-economic and food production.

How qualitative studies and gender analysis can add value to the assessment of dietary exposure to aflatoxins in Kenya

In tropical countries, maize, groundnuts, sorghum and milk are often contaminated by mycotoxins, which are toxic substances produced by fungi. High levels of exposure are fatal and lower levels can cause liver cancer in people and growth depression in livestock. Mycotoxicosis constitutes a classic ‘one health’ problem that affects the health of humans and livestock. Kenya has had some of the world’s severest outbreaks of mycotoxicosis and surveys typically show a high level of contamination of staple foods. Howe­ver, much less is known about the potential health risks of contaminated milk.

A survey of mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in poultry feed

The occurrence of fungi and their toxins in poultry feed lowers the hygienic quality of feed and presents several hazards to poultry and sometimes to 'man. To evaluate the magnitude of these hazards and generally the hygienic quality of feed presented to poultry in Nairobi, Kenya, several experiments were carried out. A total of 90 samples of poultry feeds were randomly sampled from farmers in peri-urban areas Nairobi province and in Kikuyu division of Kiambu district. dirty samples were collected in January, 30 in March, and 30 in May 1993.

Occurrence of Fusarium Head Blight–causing Pathogens and Mycotoxins in Kenyan Wheat

Fusarium head blight is a devastating disease of wheat and other small-grain cereals, causing grain yield reduction, reduced quality and mycotoxin contamination. This study was conducted in two districts of Kenya to determine the incidence of Fusarium species and mycotoxin contamination in freshly harvested wheat. A survey was carried out during the 2004 growing season in different agro-climatic zones to determine the presence of Fusarium head blight and weather conditions during the critical stages of wheat growth.

Fusarium culmorum: Infection process, mechanisms of mycotoxins production and their role in pathogenesis in wheat

Fusarium culmorum is an important pathogen of wheat causing seedling blight, foot rot, and head blight (Fusarium head blight (FHB)) or scab. The pathogen is dominant in cooler areas like north, central and western Europe. The fungus reproduces asexually by means of conidia, which form the main mode of dispersal. Head blight is by far the most serious concern of Fusarium infection on pre-harvest wheat and other small grain cereals. The significance of F. culmorum in wheat production is attributed to both head blight and mycotoxin contamination of the grain harvested from infected ears.

The Contamination of Kenyan Lager Beers with Fusarium Mycotoxins

Seventy five samples of two popular lager beers, namely Pilsner and Tusker were randomly collected from the city of Nairobi and the surrounding satellite towns in Kenya. The samples were analyzed for the presence of 4 mycotoxins, namely, deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B1 (FB1), zearalenone (ZEA), and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), by the competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The incidences of DON and ZEA were 100% in both brands, while for FB1 the incidence was 72%, with incidences in Tusker (76.9%) being significantly higher than in Pilsner (66.7%) (p = 0.00).

Major heretofore intractable biotic constraints to African food security that may be amenable to novel biotechnological solutions

The input costs of pesticides to control biotic constraints are often prohibitive to the subsistence farmers of Africa and seed based solutions to biotic stresses are more appropriate. Plant breeding has been highly successful in dealing with many pest problems in Africa, especially diseases, but is limited to the genes available within the crop genome. Years of breeding and studying cultural practices have not always been successful in alleviating many problems that biotechnology may be able to solve.

The occurrence of Fusarium species and mycotoxins in Kenyan wheat

presence of head blight-causing Fusarium species. Fungal contaminationwas determined by isolation on agar media, while mycotoxin analysis was by direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The wheat grain samples were highly contaminated with fungi, especially Epicoccum, Alternaria and Fusarium species. The mean Fusarium infection rate varied from 13% to 18%, with the major head blight-causing species being Fusarium poae, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium avenaceum. F.


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